Before following any of this advice, please see the DISCLAIMER at the end of this article.
The following explains why you should consider electrical grounding, our experiences in Thailand, and generally how grounding is done.
In the USA, it's called "grounding". I most other western countries, it's called "earthing". Section order:
1. Why to Ground
Thailand is a country with a lot of 2-prong power outlets, i.e., not grounded/earthed. Most 3-prong outlets are not properly grounded, and in fact not grounded at all. This has been illegal in the USA for decades, and likewise in many other countries ... but This Is Thailand (TIT).
Our experience in Thailand is that many people get shocked occasionally in hot water showers with electric heaters, clothes washing machines, electric cooking and other appliances, operating factory equipment, and many other applications.
Besides human safety risks, sensitive computers and electronics devices fail to operate properly and/or sustain damage. (They can be damaged at lower voltages which usually cannot be felt by humans, resulting in loss of valuable productivity, time wasted, headaches and expensive troubleshooting & repairs.)
In Thailand, the lack of grounding has been so common from the time electricity arrived to this country that the Thai people seem to almost consider it normal to get shocked. Thais also don't question things like westerners.
For just about every electrical problem, Thais say "shot!" which I think is some borrowed word derived from "short circuit" or "shock". However, getting shocked from a poorly grounded electric device is usually not due to any "short circuit". They are usually clueless as to how to fix it or that simple grounding will solve their problem. Instead, they replace the item or do some other work which doesn't really solve the problem, wasting money and time, and eventually just give up and live with the problem. Thais tolerate a lot of problems.
Human safety is most important as regards young children.
You usually get shocked when you touch exposed (unpainted) metal or water, such as the back of your computer, an exposed screw on an air conditioner, and so on. You will get shocked worse if your hands are wet (e.g., from perspiration, or a child who puts his finger in his mouth).
Fixing these problems is easy and quick.
In making a home safer, you can do it at low cost if only a few outlets and key appliances are grounded, not the entire dwelling. For example, the hot water shower's electrical heater, the electric stove and the washing machine can be grounded, compressors outside (which are connected to the units inside by copper tubing), and the rest of the house can be left as-is. How this is done is explained in the third section below.
Some two-prong lamps should be tested for safety.
Computers are very sensitive electronic devices, and commonly experience data corruption in nongrounded environments, as well as outright physical damage. This can easily happen at voltages less than can be felt by the human hand. Computer chips operate at 5 volts and less. Computer chips can be damaged by 10 volts, and data corruption can happen in many other cases. You are in a 220 volt country. You can also shock yourself by touching the exposed metal on the back of the unit.
Many people complain that the power from the power company is bad in Thailand, e.g., "I must have gotten a power surge from the power company because my computer quit working", or "lightning damage". However, the real problem is usually not a surge from the power company, but instead just bad grounding. People spend money on UPSes, surge protectors and line conditioners but usually get little if any improvement. On the other hand, those who simply ground their power outlets properly usually see their problems go away entirely, without needing a UPS or surge protector or line conditioner. A UPS and surge protector give additional protection, but it is my experience that they are the lessor protector. You cannot get a "ground" by adding a UPS or other equipment. You get a ground only by grounding.
I can show you the problem with a simple voltmeter, any time.
With proper grounding, you should never get shocked again by cooking, washing, and other appliances.
With computers, by far the most common devices to fail and need replacement are the modem, printer and printer port (when people switch the plug between PC's without turning off everything, including monitor), LAN card (network not grounded), sound card (when connected to the stereo), and video card (when plug to monitor is loose).
Intermittent data corruptions is caused because the data travels at 5 volts or less inside the computer, yet the power outside is 220 volts. Without grounding/earthing, the exposed metal on the back of the computer is typically 40-100 volts and fluctuating. Data corruption comes from leakage current.
When you connect ungrounded computers together via LAN wiring, you can add problems.
You can't see electricity. But just because you can't see the problem doesn't mean the problem's not there.
You can sometimes feel it, if the voltage is high enough. In fact, in the worst cases, you can shock yourself pretty strongly on a lot of computer equipment by touching exposed metal on the back while the computer and monitor are turned on. These systems are disaster time-bombs.
Touching exposed metal with a hand, most people won't be able to feel electricity until it goes somewhere above 25 volts, especially if your fingers are dry. Thus, damage can occur to sensitive computer components without the human being sensitive to the damage. (The computer power cord goes into a power supply on the back, which converts the 220 volts into 5 volt lines, plus 12 volt lines for special purposes.)
You should never, never, never unplug and plug any electronic device while power is turned on. I've told this to people, and they still do it, and pay the consequences. Afterwards, they said things like "I thought it would be OK just this one time". It takes only one time, and there's no going back.
2. Don't Always Trust Those Responsible, But Verify
If you are in an office highrise that has 3-prong outlets, you can't assume they are properly grounded. Often, they are not.
In an office highrise, it is proper procedure to contact the building management regarding any modification of electrical work. More often than not, they will require that they do the work themselves, for their fee. If this is the case, then you must verify that the work is done properly. From more than 5 years of doing so, in most cases they didn't get it right. That's strike 2, after the builder's strike 1.
One such experience is illustrative:
Case study #1: Project Manager with Engineering Degree from Prestigous University
This case involved a company moving into a new space in a modern highrise, in which some walls were being removed, others built, and partitions installed. I was responsible for installation of data network cabling internal to the walls (first class ergonomics). At a meeting of all involved, I specified that all power outlets needed to be grounded by the electricians, and everyone nodded "yes" as usual and so it was speficied.
The person ultimately in charge of the electrical system was a Thai man I knew from previous consulting with his multinational employer. An electrical engineer by degree from a prestigious university, he had moved up into project management, and exuded self-confidence to the point of arrogance. (Some Thai project managers use their own contractors and get a kickback.)
When I started to go into the details of what is proper grounding, he wavingly cut me off in front of the group as if I didn't have to tell him how to properly ground. So everyone moved on to other topics.
My team had to coordinate with his so that all wiring was complete before the walls, partitions and ceiling were closed up. I saw his team putting in the wiring. The grounding was not correct (not run back to the grounded breaker box in the wiring closet, nor even connected to a good object) plus they had the load-neutral wires reversed in half the outlets. I went to privately report this to him, and was lucky to find him in his office. However, he disagreed with me about what was a proper ground (e.g., he authoritatively hit his hand upon his desk and said that was "grounded") as if he was right because he had a degree in electrical engineering from a prestigious university (and not knowing that my degree is in physics). I also raised the second issue of polarity. He just brushed me off and quipped with an air of overconfidence, "In Thailand it doesn't matter". At that point, I told him in the best softspoken Thai manner that I could muster, that the laws of physics do not recognize international political borders, and then made it clear that if the wiring were not corrected, then it would be necessary for me to raise this issue with someone else higher up, beyond the two of us, before I would install my expensive computer equipment and take responsibility for the smooth operation of the computer system. Only then did he bend, since the top guy was a foreigner who would analyze the matter himself rather than rely on an authority based on his degree and university.
It is my strict policy not to name names. It is unnecessary to do so. It also makes people hesitant to reveal additional faults, if you come down hard on particular individuals who do. It's best to keep people anonymous. (You can verify that I do this by talking to my other clients.)
It reminds me a lot of computer technicians. They do some things wrong, but they all do it the same wrong way, like some authority in Thailand established a wrong way and everyone copied it, and that's the standard way.
Case study #2: Bank Branch
Another case worth mentioning involved a bank branch whose computer system occasionally crashed, which was a very serious problem for the bank. I was hastily called into a meeting to help brainstorm, as a multidisciplinary person, as all teams had reported no problem after several months of extensive and expensive diagnostics and a few pieces of equipment being replaced ... and still the system crashed all the same.
In private, the three teams pointed the finger at each other, full circle. The electrical team reported no more faults with the electrical system after extensive and expensive diagnostics. The computer hardware and network teams reported no faults with the computer hardware after extensive and expensive diagnostics. The software team reported no problems like this at other branches, and kept commenting that the system was fault tolerant (in that many other faults would not cause the system to crash). When nobody had any solution, then behind the scenes there was ordered some replacements in electrical equipment, just to say they did something, more or less. But the problem didn't go away. The system kept crashing.
So I came in and I walked around to take a look and a few measurements of my own. Guess what? Improper grounding. After proper grounding, no more crashes occurred. One branch fixed.
Case study #3: Electrocution
There are countless case studies of people being shocked periodically from warm water showers, clothes washing machines, cooking appliances, factory machines, and just touching metal somewhere, e.g., near a light fixture. Many deaths are included in this. I have lost count of the number of people I have met over the years who have lost a child, an elderly person or a man or lady in the prime of their life because of an electrocution. I've also gotten occasional reports by email on Thailand Guru of serious incidents, including the death of a young foreign girl (which went unreported in the news, as they usually do, no journalist there).
3. Doing It Right vs. Dangers
Anyone who deals with electricity should know what they're doing, and be careful.
It is my experience that a certified electrician in Thailand is no assurance of safety. They have often been taught the wrong, cheap way of doing things.
The most common thing is they respond to a ground complaint by screwing a wire into the cement or wooden wall, and if questions say authoritatively "sure" that's a ground. Of course, the symptoms don't go away, so they then blame it on the power company, or that the appliance is bad. I've seen this countless times... and since their associates agree, they really believe it. They don't analyze the theory. They just copy.
Notably, if your monthly electricity bills seem too high, you might have a wiring fault.
Before checking the grounding, the first thing is to check the existing wiring to make sure it's safe. This is my standard operating procedure, because it takes only a few minutes, and it can reveal the existence of any problems you already have in your dwelling but are not aware of. These can be problems of safety, or electrical faults that are causing higher than usual electrical bills. In most cases, there are no major problems, but I've found places with serious problems. (Most inspections by electricians end here.)
You should check the "breakers" and/or "fuses" to make sure they are proper. These devices are there to protect you. For many kinds of electrical fault, these devices cut off the electricity and thus prevent a fire or other serious injury. They don't protect against all electrical faults and hazards, but these devices have prevented many fires, albeit not all. They are not good protection against getting shocked, but in some cases can keep a shock from being fatal.
A "breaker" is a switch designed to turn itself off if too much electrical current flows thru it (but also see "RCCB" discussed below). If it "trips", then you can go switch it back on.
A "fuse" is a link designed to burn out if too much electrical current flows thru. If it burns out, then you replace it, by unscrewing it and putting in a fresh new fuse.
A house can have fuses only, or breakers only, or in rare cases both breaker(s) and fuse(s).
The simpleminded advantage of fuses is that they are cheaper. The simpleminded disadvantage is that you need to replace them if they burn out. With a breaker, you just flip the switch back on. Unfortunately, some people replace burnt out fuses with big wires or coins or other things, which removes their protection. If you see this, then fix it! If I find fuses, then I inspect them. I unscrew them and look for a wire or a coin underneath.
Breakers are better because they act quicker and can be much more sensitive to faults that need to be fixed. So-called "RCCB" breakers are much better protection against electrocution, though not complete protection.
If you have any problems with fuses and breakers, then they should be analyzed and fixed. The usual causes are cheaply designed appliances ("faulty") or poorly laid out wiring in the dwelling which causes overloading of a particular circuit.
Breakers and fuses are usually in a metal cabinet up in a corner of your wall-ceiling somewhere, usually somewhat out of view, such as under a stairway, in a closet, behind the front door, or somewhere like that.
You might also want to take note of the kind of breaker you have. If I lose you in this paragraph, just skip on to the next one. These breakers are rated by maximum electrical current, whose unit of measurement is amps (A). Thus, the breakers have ratings of 10 A or 15 A or 25 A, etc. However, there are different kinds of breakers. One of the most common kinds is called an RCCB (residual current circuit breaker), which is designed to provide functionality for a 2-prong, ungrounded/unearthed circuit. (In countries where all electric outlets are predominantly grounded, you often don't find RCCBs, but they work in both kinds of circuits -- grounded and ungrounded.) RCCBs are rated by milliamps (mA), not amps (A), of "leakage" current, because they are designed on the assumption that there might be no ground and any "leak" or unbalance between input and output is abnormal. Sometimes there is a combination of the two kinds of breaker. They both have their advantages and disadvantages, e.g., an RCCB may not switch off despite a short circuit or overload if there is no current leakage (thus, not protecting against a fire hazard). A rare but occasional problem is that an RCCB breaker sometimes turns off, i.e., "trips", if some appliance on the circuit is grounded. This is rare, but does happen in some exceptional cases (such as a cheap electric stove). If grounding causes an RCCB to trip, it's usually caused by a faulty appliance (which may be dangerous in other ways, too) or faulty wiring somewhere -- in which case the RCCB is helping you. In such cases, you should replacing the faulty appliance, or else replace the breaker with a non-RCCB one or an RCCB with a higher mA rating. In any case, it is sometimes useful to know if your circuit breaker is an RCCB rated in milliamps (mA), or a regular circuit breaker rated in amps (A). (Yes, there's a 1000 times difference between mA and A, but you're always safer with a grounded system.)
For me, grounding is about safety. Safety first, and we can easily sort out any problems which occur.
If you call an electrician to fix a problem, you had better watch them fix it. For example, I had a friend who moved into a house in a nice neighborhood, but the first week was plagued by a breaker tripping often. The electrician, who co-owned the impressive-looking electrician business located prominently on the roadside, was regarded by everyone I knew as the village authority, and good at solving problems. But what did he do? He went in and bypassed the breaker with a thick solid wire! "Fixed" the symptom, not the cause. I also found that this electrician had previously done the same thing to another breaker in the house, and had also bypassed a heavy duty fuse. That explained the electric bill, and maybe why the previous tenant moved out. The lady reported that one time when the electricity went out, she heard hissing and found flames shooting out of the fuse like a torch for a full minute or so. The aluminum electrical wire he had used to bypass the fuse had caught fire -- burning metal.
Always double-check, and don't automatically trust the "authorities" here.
Assuming all of the above about the breakers and fuses and wiring in your house checks out OK, then we can get down to the work of grounding.
Performing the Grounding
A properly grounded receptacle has three prongs. Two are provided by the power company, and are called "load" and "neutral". (Load is sometimes called "hot".) The third is called "ground" in the USA, or "earth" in most other countries, and is simply a wire with a good connection to the ground under your feet, i.e., the dirt.
A ground is not any of the following:
A ground is a wire connected to an uninterrupted metal electrical conductor that deeply penetrates the ground, usually two meters deep in Bangkok. (Outside of Bangkok, this sometimes takes a sledgehammer.) In dry places, it takes multiple conductors and/or deeper conductors. In Bangkok, a two meter copper rod is usually quite sufficient, because the ground is very wet starting at less than a meter of depth. You can push a copper rod down two meters with your hands in Bangkok (sitting on it at the end, such as putting a board on top of the rod when it's low), since the ground is just mud and clay, no rocks, and with the water table barely under the surface.
There are various formal definitions of a ground, e.g., how many amps of current it can drain at a particular voltage, or resistance per surface meter. The quality of ground you need depends upon your application. However, in Bangkok and many other places, quality of ground is not a problem.
The most common ground that I install is one or more wires connected to this two meter copper rod that I drive down into the ground. The rod is only about a centimeter (half an inch) thick. It may be copper coated with lead, or just copper, depending on what's available. I often drive a few rods around the property rather than bring all wires to one rod, since it's quite a distance.
When driving a rod, sometimes you have a few false starts due to buried trash or cement from when the home was being built, but eventually you can get past the first half meter and thereafter the rod goes down easily to two meters. (Yes, it's difficult getting the rod back out if you get stuck halfway, but that's our problem, not yours, if we are there doing the work for you.)
However, for factories in higher elevation and hilly places, to sufficiently ground a factory to meet specifications, I've had to drive a number of rods into the dry rocky ground, and then connect these rods together to drain the excess voltage and current. (There are specifications for all this.) Sometimes you need a sledgehammer and a strong guy.
Once the rod is driven, it's just a matter of running the wires to the outlets. The wires are simply clamped to the rod. Make sure the connection is strong and stable.
Sometimes you don't have to drive a rod. Some breaker boxes are already grounded, particularly in highrise buildings where the breaker boxes have been installed properly. They will have a green wire coming in. You can usually see this by visual inspection, and then verify that the green wire coming in is a proper ground and not just screwed into a cement wall above the ceiling by proper instrumentation. If you can verify that it is a proper ground, then all you have to do is bring the wire back to the breaker box.
In the old days before the advent of plastic pipe, people would connect the wire to a water pipe going into the ground, rather than drive copper rods. However, you cannot connect the wire to a metal pipe or steel structural beam in a dwelling unless you can verify by visual inspection or instrumentation that the pipe or beam provide a solid connection to the ground. A metal pipe could have an intermediate PVC (plastic) joint, and in fact that's more common than not in new homes. Metal structural beams may be sitting on a concrete base above the ground. Further, the non-grounded structural beams may have "grounded" to them air conditioners and other devices which can provide nasty electronic feedback or shocks, which would pose a hazard to your computer's data or even shock you. (In some factories, you can get shocked by touching the wrong metal frame member, due to improper grounding.)
It takes just a moment to test your ground with instrumentation.
Once you have a good ground, then you should also check the neutral wire from the power company against this ground. The neutral usually runs between 0.1 and 2.5 volts above ground. (These are not specifications, this is the reality. For example, specifications for a bank's computer system is 0.2 volts or less for neutral.) If it runs more than 2.5 volts above ground, then you should look into why, check around, and do some research before you decide whether or not to ground items, and what to ground. If you have a high neutral, then it's still usually best to grounding cooking appliances, washing machines, etc. The question arises when it comes to computers. In all cases, you should measure the leakage current to ground. Too much leakage current would mean a faulty appliance. Notably, the leakage current is usually very low, but as always, safety first, and it takes just a minute. I've grounded computers in provincial homes when the neutral sometimes ran up to 10 volts, but that was on a case by case basis.
If the neutral is at a high voltage, then you may want to unplug appliances when not in use, to save money on your electric bill.
Assuming all is good so far, it's time to make the 3-prong receptacles.
It is important to get the "polarity" correct. When you look at a three prong receptacle, you will find a hole and two slits. The hole is for the ground wire. The slightly wider slit is for the neutral. The slightly narrower one is for the wire which provides alternating voltage +/- 220 V (or 110 V in the U.S.).
You can either replace the receptacles in the wall, or else attach a two-to-three prong plug adapter which has a loop where you connect the ground wire to the third hole, like those pictured below. The one on the left has a green ground wire firmly connected to it (by a nut & bolt with two washers, but they are covered by electrical tape).
When connecting wires, it is important to make sure the connection is good, and that they don't get too close to each other to cause a sparkover. 220 volt electricity will jump over a considerable gap. You should also wrap any exposed wire with electrical tape.
It doesn't do any good to ground the wall receptacles if you have a power strip with a two-prong plug. You must use power strips that have three prong plugs and three prong receptacles. You should also double-check to make sure that the ground of the receptacle is connected to the ground of the plug. Many times, I've found power strips where they are not connected, i.e., the third prong of the power strip's receptacles are not connected to the third prong of the plug. Likewise, I've found power strips in Thailand which reverse the polarity of neutral and load. It just takes a few seconds to check it with an ohmmeter (while it's unplugged).
The power cords for your computer also need to be 3-prong, and should not reverse polarity (as supplied ones often do in Thailand). (Computer power cords do not look like regular power cords on the computer end, and the proper polarity geometry is also not the same.)
There's also the issue of getting surge protection, e.g., from lightning strikes and from bad power. This is another topic, and mainly applies to protecting electronic components. Generally speaking, we can recommend particular brands and models of power strips. Notably, on the boxes they often say "overload protection" and "noise filtering". I've opened up many power strips at clients' sites as well as those I sometimes buy at the store. They are very rarely anywhere close to the same quality of those I used in the U.S. A breaker on a power strip won't protect a computer much. By the time the mechanical breaker has tripped due to a necessarily huge current surge, the computer has already been damaged. Computers can get damaged in a relative instant. The "noise filtering" usually won't protect you against lightning. (They just put in small inductor and capacitor elements.) UPSes often prove worthless against lightning (found out after the fact...) because they usually connect you to the main power and switch to battery power only after the main power is lost. No matter how quick that switch, it often won't protect you against the initial lightning strike that causes the subsequent loss of power in the mains.
"Power conditioning" is not the same thing as "surge suppression".
The best lightning protection available in Thailand is usually a power strip with "MOV" devices (MOV = metal oxide varistor) which connect both load and neutral to ground. There are a few "MOV" surge protectors on the market in Thailand which have one MOV, full stop, and that one's between load and neutral, not connected to ground (as if lightning would strike one wire on the power pole or transformer outside but not the adjacent one), and thus not what I would consider effective... There are a few on the market in Thailand which mention MOV protection on the box just like their competitors' boxes but if you get your screwdriver out and open up the power strip then you often won't find a single MOV inside. And again, even if you find an MOV, you'll usually find just one. There are precious few surge protecting power strips that can be found in Thailand which do it right, across all three junctions. However, some MOV protection is usually better than none.
Some devices won't have a 3-prong plug. These include washing machines that will shock you mad if you put your hand into the water (or your child does). What you do is connect the ground wire directly to a suitable exposed metal place on the washing machine (usually the back or underneath), which can be verified by a voltmeter. The same applies to electric stoves, hot water showers, and other places. Almost all of these appliances already have either a green ground wire hanging out the back or else a place with a grounding symbol. (Those wires and places are often there due to consumer protection laws with two-prong households in mind. Unfortunately, for places like Thailand, the consumers rarely do their end.)
4. Important Note on 220-to-110 Volt Transformers
Expats who come to Thailand from 110 volt countries (such as the U.S.) often bring 110 volt appliances and use a step-down transformer.
Many transformers are "polarity sensitive" in that their plug must be plugged in the right way. If you look at the cord, you might see that one of the two lines has a thin stripe or is not smooth. That side, or "pole", should be plugged into neutral.
In theory, transformers should be properly designed so that polarity is not important. In practice, this has not been the case. I'm not going to explain why (and I've argued with engineers about simple theory vs. real factory design of transformers), and arguments can be superceded with simply a voltmeter test to prove this point:
With many transformers, if you plug them in backwards then the 110 volt outlet is actually 220 volts on one pole and 110 volts on the other. It looks like 110 volts to the appliance (220 minus 110), but the appliance is floating 110 volts about ground, and you can easily get shocked by touching any exposed metal or touching it with sweaty or otherwise wet hands. If it's a fax machine, then you may burn it out when you plug in the phone line which gives a ground.
If the transformer is plugged in correctly, then you should get zero or neutral (maybe a few volts) on one pole and 110 volts on the other pole.
If you are grounding the 110 volt outlet, then it is imperative that you get the polarity correct. Otherwise, the three prongs could be 0, 110 and 220.
You should make sure that if the transformer is unplugged, then when it gets plugged in again by whoever touches the plug, it's polarity is correct in the wall outlet. One way is to mark the wall socket and the plug with a marker or long-lasting sticker, e.g., Left to Left and Right to Right for a horizontal plug (two L's or two R's), or Top and Bottom for a vertical one (T-T or B-B). Most wall sockets have a wide prong and a slightly narrower prong so that polarity sensitive plugs can fit in only a particular way. Of course, this assumes that whoever installed your wall sockets installed them properly (which is very often not the case in modern office buildings and modern condos in Bangkok -- i.e., the wider prong is supposed to be neutral, but it is often erroneously the live wire) and that the transformer offers you a polarity plug with one prong wider than the other. If there's a problem here, then ThailandGuru can help you out by installing a fairly foolproof system.
Get a 220-to-110 volt transformer that is big enough to power your appliance. There are many small and compact transformers which are sold in travel shops which cannot be used to power much. Look at their power rating. For example, a computer will need a fair sized transformer, and I would recommend 150 Watts minimum, and more if you have a non-LCD monitor (the big kind). Bigger is better, because ratings are not always accurate, and excess capacity is safer. I've had seen people bring smaller transformers and experience their computer not fully booting up or just crashing often, and upgrading the transformer worked.
These transformers are on sale at some department stores and hardware stores in the expat regions.
5. Costs and Quotations
Grounding is usually not very expensive, if we perform the work. The work can usually be performed fairly quickly, often just a few hours.
If the place to be grounded is not far away, then we will usually come take a look and provide a quotation free of charge and with no obligation. Sometimes we will make a quotation for a far away place with enough verbal description by the person in charge.
There are several factors that go into a quotation. However, it's notable that a potentially major factor in cost is how pretty you want the grounding to be done. Do you want all wiring out of sight above the ceiling and thru the walls and with all wall receptacles replaced, or is external conduit along the floorboard and an adapter plug OK?
You should also think about the value of your computer equipment, your data, your business productivity, and possibly the life of someone in your family in cases of hot water showers, clothes washers, and cooking appliances, especially if they have any heart problems.
To request a quotation, just call us or send us e-mail.
DISCLAIMER: The above information is provided as a public service to help people perform QUALITY CONTROL of professionals performing the service of grounding/earthing. ThailandGuru and all its associates do not assume and hereby disclaim any liability to any party for any loss or damage caused by following the advice of this article. If you choose to take any of this advice, it is at your own risk and no other entity's. USE THE SERVICES OF A PROFESSIONAL ELECTRICAL COMPANY. But supervise them and do the quality control yourself, if you can.
While it is not our primary service, we can provide electrical grounding services for a fee. This is usually an inexpensive service, whereby Complete Quality (CQ) has trained laborers do the tedious dirty work, but CQ does the preliminary assessment, oversees the work, and checks everything with electrical instrumentation. We buy all the parts, bring our own electrical instrumentation, and do the entire job.
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